Machines that can transport you from one place to another are called norimono (乗り物). Japan is world known for its efficient transportation system, most of which is made up of trains.
Car = kuruma / jidousha (車/自動車)
Motorcycle = baiku (バイク)
Bus = basu (バス)
Plane = hikouki (飛行機)
Taxi = takushii (タクシー)
Noru (乗る) is the verb which means to ride. This verb is used when you are speaking about being on/in a vehicle. Oriru (降りる) means to exit/get off a vehicle.
(I) am riding the bus = basu ni notte imasu (バスに乗っています)
Alone (I will) ride on plane = hitori de hikouki ni norimasu
(I) got off the bus = basu o orita (バスを降りた)
Here get off the bus please = koko de basu o orite kudasai
Electric trains in Japan are called densha (電車). Non electric trains are referred to as ressha (列車). Trains that go underground are called chikatetsu (地下鉄). In Japan trains are fast, clean and stations can be found everywhere which is why they are the most convenient way to travel around Japan. Trains in Japan are world known for always being on schedule.
The shinkansen (新幹線), Also known as the bullet train, is a high speed train line. There are different kinds of shinkansen with max speeds ranging between 300-581km/h (186-361 mph). The shinkansen are used to transport people between cities. The shinkansen are known to be a very reliable, environmentally friendly and a safe way to travel.
Touchaku suru (到着する) means to arrive. Shuppatsu suru (出発する) means to depart. If you take any mode of transportation in Japan you will often hear these verbs.
At 3 the train will arrive = densha wa sanji ni touchaku shimasu
(It) didn't leave yet? = mada shuppatsu shinai no?
Bicycles in Japan are a very popular mode of transportation. In Japanese they are called jitensha (自転車). Bikes are often left outside houses or in a bike parking lot unlocked. The crime rate in Japan is very low, so there is not a big threat of having your bike stolen.
Bicycle parking lots can be found all over and they are usually very large. A lot of them also fit scooters (sukuutaa スクーター) which are also a popular way of transportation.