The particle KA
Ka (か) is a particle that you can use to make a question. When you use it the sentence order doesn't change. It's used in the same place where a question mark would be in English.
What month is it? = nan gatsu desu ka (何月ですか)
What is the date today? = kyou wa nan nichi desu ka
Another way you can ask a question is using a rise in intonation. This is especially common in casual Japanese.
Where is dog? = inu wa doko? (犬はどこ？)
You can ask a lot of different questions alone with the particle wa and a rise in intonation. The translations of these types of questions depend on the situation that you are currently in.
(What is your) name? = onamae wa? (お名前は？)
(Where is) John? = jon wa? (ジョンは?)
How you respond to a question depends on the question and if its a polite situation or a casual situation. In situations where something is ok, correct or you agree you can say hai (はい). In situations where something is incorrect or you disagree you can say iie (いいえ). These are generaly polite words. In casual situations you can use any of the following.
Correct = un (うん)
Correct = ee (ええ)
Incorrect = uun (ううん)
Incorrect = ie (いえ)
Incorrect = iya (いや)
The word sou (そう) is close to the English words thats right, thats so. It can be used to answer or ask many different types of questions. Below are different ways that you can answer the question are you a student?.
hai, gakusei desu (はい、学生です)
gakusei ja nai (学生じゃない)
sou desu (そうです)
The kanji for what is 何 which can either be pronounced as nan or nani depending on the words that surround it. As you learn more sentence structures you will be able to know which way to pronounce it.
What is it = nan desu ka (何ですか)
What is this = kore wa nan desu ka (これは何ですか)
What's that? = nani sore? (何それ？)
What? = nani (何)
● Said by itself it is always nani
What is your name = onamae wa nan desu ka (お名前は何ですか)